Dr Ireen Kiwelu

In Tanzania, studies on HIV-1 drug resistance prevalence and treatment failure are scarce for first-line drugs, and there is practically no data for failing second-line treatment. Furthermore, most of the molecular epidemiological studies in Tanzania have focused on analyses of HIV-1 sub-genomic regions. Analysis of one or two regions may underestimate the true proportion of HIV-1 strains especially of the recombinants. Therefore, near full length genome sequencing will allow us to estimate the frequency of HIV-1 subtypes, recombinants and drug resistance mutations among patients failing first and second-line treatment attending CTCs (Care and Treatment Clinics) in the Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. HIV-1 infected patients failing first and second-line treatment aged under 18 years attending CTCs at least for one year will be selected for the study. The patients successfully suppressed on ART will also be recruited as a control group. Inclusion criterion will be patients who have failed first and second-line treatment based on viral load of > 1,000 copies/ml and for the patients successfully suppressed on ART is a consistent viral load of < 1,000 copies/ml. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and drug resistance testing.